Giant, Giant Mountains, Czech Paradise
Czech paradise

Czech paradise

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The Bohemian Paradise (German Böhmisches Paradies) is the name for the territory in the middle Pojizeř, which is distinguished by a high concentration of natural and historical monuments. The name Bohemian Paradise originally referred to the Litoměřice area (today called the Garden of Bohemia), populated by the German-speaking population. The current definition was created in 2. half of 19. century. As his authors are mentioned spa guests who visited the Sedmihorky Spa, but the first documented use, however, comes from the editor of Václav Durych from 1886.

The area situated roughly 90 km northeast of Prague is roughly limited by the towns: Sobotka, Mnichovo Hradiště, Sychrov, Frydstejn, Železný Brod, Semily, Lomnice nad Popelkou, Železnice and Jičín. The "heart of Bohemian Paradise" is traditionally considered Turnov. The main dominant of the region is the Kozákov Mountain and the ruins of Trosky Castle. Also important are rock towns, especially Prachovské rocks, Příhrazské rocks, Hruboskalsko and ponds, eg Žabakor, Komárovský pond and ponds in the subtrose and sub-basin valleys.

Bohemian Paradise is also a name for a protected landscape area, existing since 1955, which contains only three smaller discontinuous areas within the larger imaginary area of ​​the Bohemian Paradise tourist region.

Maloskalsko
The Maloskalsko Nature Park is a protected area declared in 1997, which lies at the south-western border of the Jablonec nad Nisou district of the Liberec region, partly in the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area. It lies on both banks of the Jizera river, amidst a rich nature full of bizarre rock towns. The notional center, according to which the park is named, is the village of Malá Skála.

The intention to declare this nature park was a result of long-term vain efforts to extend the protected landscape area of ​​Bohemian Paradise on the territory of the municipalities of Malá Skála, Koberovy, Frýdštejn, Líšný and partially also Pěnčín and Železný Brod.

The axis of this area is the Jizera River. From Železný Brod to Turnov it moves in a deeply cut river flood that intersects the second axis of Pojizeří - Ještědsko-Kozákovský ridge. These sites are the most valuable sites, some of which have previously been part of a network of protected areas or significant landscape features. NPP Dry Rocks, PR Bučiny u Rakous, PP Ondříkovický pseudokrasový systém. The scattered village and settlement builds the typical character of this area.

The top parts of the area dominated by Vranovský hřeben and Suché skály form sandstone rocks. Part of the natural park is the Jizera floodplain, covered with sparse vegetation, and in the wider areas it also includes river niva and parts of steep slopes with numerous landslides and crevices. Jizera serves as a corridor for the descent of mountain and sub-mountain species into lower positions. In the opposite direction, the valley of the Jizera spreads through a thermophilous flora into the mountains.

The original forest ecosystems characteristic of this area are represented by flowering beech trees, acidophilic and boron oak forests. Significant non-forest ecosystems include waterlogged meadows, former sandstone quarries, the valley of Vazovecký potok and the site of the white-gray saffron at Záborčí.

Due to the very varied geological background, Maloskalsko and the adjacent part of Železnobrodska represent a diverse range of communities and species, which include relic elements and remnants of the original vegetation preserved in heavily accessible habitats (flowering beech trees, pine forests, rocky forests, waterhed meadows, springs, etc.) . Among the important plant species there are, for example, white-tailed saffron, tribal coral, playing fern, sling slippers, red scarlet, white oak, and mayar. Sandstone rock towns provide a convenient environment for many important bird species. There is a fennel swallow, a rainbow toad, a lion, a common toad, a common lizard, a fragile blind, and others.

Klokočské rocks is a natural reserve of ev. No. 918 in the Jicin Hill, west of Klokočí village in Semily district in the Liberec region. The area is managed by AOPK ČR - the regional workplace of Liberecko. The Nature Reserve lies on the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area, the European-important sites of the Jizera Breakthrough at Rakousy and the Bohemian Paradise Geopark.

The Klokočské rocks form a rock city at the edge of a quest of quartz sandstone from the top turon to coniak, inclined to the southwest. The highest point (458 m nm) lies on the structural denudation ridge in the southeast. The mild structural slope of the chaos in the central and northwestern parts is divided by numerous saphotic slopes, towering towers, columns and rock walls with shapes of gravity sedimentation and powerful, heaps. There were rock niches, pseudocross caves (many of them significant and archaeological) and rock pitches. Rocks are predominantly wooded with pine trees, sometimes with birch trees. In the southeast there is the ruins of the Rotštejn Rock Castle. There are climbing facilities. From the line of rooftop terraces oriented in the direction of SZ-JV there are far-reaching views of the northern mountains over the Roven Ward.

Kozákov (744 m) is the highest mountain of Kozákovský ridge and Bohemian Paradise. From the prehistory, the top has been searched for as a store of precious stones, of which prehistoric hunters made simple tools. In the cavities of the rock spherical fillings of agate, jasper, amethyst, crystal, greens and other semi-precious stones were crystallized. The site was used in the Middle Ages to decorate the temples. Kozákov is also a popular place for paragliding.

The largest part of Kozákov is formed by perennial rocks, which are covered by a tertiary larch of basalt and volcanic sediments on top, north and east. Before 6 to 4 for millions of years, Kozakov was the active volcano. The western side of Kozákov is made up mainly of semi-mountainous Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian sandstones. These have been broken into a few kerues in the Tertiary and brought to their present form.

It is a large asymmetric elevation at the sites of the maximum elevation of the anticlinic basalt and the melafy ridge with the lower and lower eastern slopes (15-20) and the flat top part of the lagoon stream of neogenic olivinic basalt (basalt) running down the spine to the southeast. On the higher and steeper west slope there are tectonically raised crystals of sandstone (max. 667 m) with marginal walls, rock towers, niches, caves, boulders. The melafy and basalt slopes are boulder streams and the rocky sea.

On the southwest slope there is an extensive melafyrous quarry known as Votrubec Quarry. It is privately owned by Votrubka, and it also includes a small Museum of Precious Stones. For a small fee, it is possible to dig in the quarry using borrowed tools even today to find semi-precious stones, which the owner can then grind.

In the Middle Ages, they flashed on Kozák's signal fire. Later thousands of people's camps were gathered here. At the 1901, the Turnov painter Jan Prousek proposed at the top of the building either the neo-Romanesque chapel of St. Cyril and Methodius or more than 20 meters high Slavic mound with artificial cave planted with semiprecious stones. After the birth of Czechoslovakia, 28 was burned every year. October hearth. After the death of Franz Ladislav Rieg of 1903, the idea was born to honor his memory by constructing Rieger's Mounds. A year later, the "Rieger Mound Construction Team" launched a successful nationwide collection. Later, two concepts competed: a mound or a mausoleum versus a hut with a restaurant and a Riegrov monument. The second variant was taken by the Czech Tourists Club. The cornerstone of the cottage was laid by 29. August 1926. The cottage was built from collections, gifts and contributions from nearby towns. 24 was officially opened. June 1928. During the Second World War, the cottage was occupied by German and then by the Czechoslovak army. After February 1948, the cottage was nationalized and transferred to Restaurant and Dining. In May 1964 hut burned. The 1994 Club of Czech Tourists in the Semily cottage in the 10-year state bought it from the state. At 1995, a 40 meter tower with a viewing platform at 24 meters was opened at the top. The lookout tower also serves as a metal telecommunication mast for the army, the police, and firefighters. Since 2002, Kozákov is part of the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area. In the 2003, Rieger's cottage was reopened after the general reconstruction. The lookout tower offers views of Bohemian Paradise, Pojizeří, České středohoří, Giant Mountains and the Lusatian Mountains, Ještěd, Mountains, Podkrkonoší, Broumovská vrchovina, Orlické hory and possibly also the foothills of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands.

The Nature Reserve Příhrazské skály was declared 1999 year and is located to the south and west of the village Příhrazy in the Mladá Boleslav district. The reason for protection is a significant complex of rocks, natural and semi-natural forest communities, geomorphologically valuable areas.

The reserve is a complex of rocky towns on the edge of a sandstone rock plateau. The dominant feature is the rock formation named Kobylí's head. Inside the rock city there is the carved Hynstas. The one in 17. century served as a shelter for Czech brethren. In the area there are remnants of the 13 castle. century.

The Příhrazská Highlands fall under the Vyskeř Highlands within the Jicin Highlands. The highest point of the area is the 463,5 m. This unburned peak of the Olivinian Nepheline vein is a tectonic bush approximately halfway to the southeast. This was determined by comparing the surface heights of block sandstones and the levels of water outlets from their foundations. The oldest shapes of the Příhrada Highlands are the structural ridges - the remains of the structural platform. The rock town of Příhrazské skály counts the 178 tower. Most of them stand at the edges of canyon valleys at the head of a tectonic roof. The front is lined with a slider band according to rotating shear surfaces. The biggest slump in the recent past occurred in 1926 in June. As a result, a large part of the village of Dneboh was destroyed and the district road was damaged in Olšina.

As a result of the black-type landslides, the cracks in the crevices are enlarged, allowing the formation of pseudo-sacrifices. We find them in the Příhrazské rocks around sixty. The most famous is the pseudocross gorge with a crevice extending to the depth of 22,5 meters. which was discovered in 1960 and whose bottom was two years later descended by traveler Gustav Ginzel, the owner of the well-known Manure House in Jizera. In the canyon valleys of Krtola and the Vlčí Důl, we can come across rock gates, rock arches and caves. Krtola Cave, also known as Sklep na Chodové, is the largest cave of Bohemian Paradise. This 40 meter long cave was first explored in 80. years 19. century archaeologist Josef Ladislav Píč.

There are frequent grooves and iron inlaid. We can meet here with the rocks. Saturated brown soils (eutrophic cambis) with rankers (typical and lithic) were formed here, and on the sandstones of acid arsenols (arenic cambisis with arenical subsoil). Locked positions occupy pseudogleges (typical and gleaming) with gley (typical and organozem), part of the reservation also glezou organozem.

Reserves are dominated by forests with a high proportion of natural forest communities. The renowned rocks on the top rocks, the dwarf thermophilic oak woodcock in Old Castles and the scrubbed forest under the peak of Mužský, where Lunaria rediviva grows, are among the most valuable of them. An interesting place is the island of steppe vegetation with the Ivan's cave (Stipa joannis) on the rock plateau Hrad. It is the last known place of thermophysics in this part of Bohemian Paradise. In addition to it, other interesting thermophilous species were observed. At the Drábských světničkách, the whole-colt tree (Cotoneaster integerrimus) grows. The inverse gorges can be found with natural spruce admixtures, and on the rocky walls the stands of the Huperzia selago and the Lycopodium annotinum. From the botanical point of view, Krtola is the most famous gorge.

Within the reservation south of the Oběšenec pond, there is a memorable tree Dub at Oběšence.

Hruboskalsko is a nature reserve renowned for 22. April 1998. The 219,2 ha is one of the largest rock towns in the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area. The reason for protection is an extensive rock town with preserved relics. Hruboskalské rock town includes hundreds of rock massifs and separate towers reaching up to 60 m. Thanks to the small sandstone resistance and constant influence of many influences, rocks are rich in various shapes and forms (honeycombs, windows, gates). Hruboskalsko is part of the Bohemian Paradise Geopark, which was included in the network of European geoparks in October 2005.

It is one of the most original Czech climbing areas, the most famous towers are Kapelník, Skull, Maják and Osudová. Between the Czech climbing association and the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area, an agreement is concluded, which includes conditions for climbing on sandstone.

Hruboskalské rock town is also an important tourist area. The most famous monuments are the Hrubá skála castle, which was built on the rock massif already in 14. century and Wallenstein Castle. There are many sightseeing places on the rock massifs such as the Marian Lookout, the view of the Kapel, the view of Lvíčka and others, where visitors can see imposing rock formations and very often climbers climbing the surrounding towers. Thanks to the sources of Hruboskalska rich in calcium ions, the Sedmihorky spa was created here.

The Hruboskalsko Nature Reserve is located in the Liberec region of 3 kilometers from the town of Turnov. It lies between the villages Sedmihorky, Hrubá Skála and Kacanovy. Altitude is here between 265-420 m. Hruboskalské rock town is the most valuable rock town in the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area.

The formation of rocky towns is divided into four phases. The first is the preparatory stage in which the sandstone body is below ground level. As a result of groundwater activity, the formation of harder nuclei of sandstone surrounds the softer sandstone. At this stage, the influence of the Ice Age during which the cracked fissures were fading was decisive. The next phase is the initial phase characterized by tectonic picking and erosion. The result is a flat farmland of central Bohemia with sandstone gorges. The third phase is a mature phase that occurs after the end of the tectonic elevation. At this stage there are various types of weathering, the formation of protective crusts and the breaking off of exfoliating scales that copy the edges of the rock walls and can have a thickness of up to 1 m. The last phase is the aging phase, where rock formations are destroyed. Destruction is most often caused by sloping movements, rocky blocks and ravishing rock towns. Thus, we can see the rock city as a mosaic of variously old surfaces. This rock city, like the others in the region, has been developing 18-20 for millions of years.

Hruboskalská vrchovina belongs to Vyskeřská vrchovina, which belongs to the Turnovská hill. All this is part of Severočeská tabula. Hruboskalská vrchovina is a tectonic bark, which is bounded by the Libyan break and the break in the Jordan River valley and the Žehrovka River. The foundations of the rock city arose in the younger pleistocene, while microforms of honeycombs, rock ledges, cavities and windows were created during the holocene. The most striking massifs are the Lighthouse, the Kapelník group and the Dragon Rocks. We can also see a number of caves, rock gates and tunnels. Hruboskalské rock town is made up of weakly lithicated quartz sandstone. The power of sandstone is 120 and some rock outcrops are high up to 60 m.

Almost the whole rock city is covered with forests (97%). Typical stands are relics of the birch, which have been preserved only scattered, most notably at the peaks of rock towers or rock massifs. You can also find pine oak woods, but with a lower oak. Another typical growth of the rock city is the acidic beechwood, which covers the damp ravines between the rocks.

A distinctive kind of undergrowth of herb layer is, in particular, Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), Calluna vulgaris, Rhodococcum vitis-idaea, Avenella flexuosa, Aquilegia vulgaris and Luzola pilosa, . In damp ravines, we often find the Austrian carp (Dryopteris carthusiana) and the true carp (Dryopteris dilatata). Typical is also the occurrence of Carex and reed (Phragmites australis), especially around small ponds. In the valleys of the spring springs there is a common horsetail (Equisetum telmateia). One of the protected plant species is the widespread hairpin (Trichomanes speciosum). The most problematic invasive species is the Pinus srobus pine that could endanger relic boron ecosystems. Other fast growing species such as Quercus rubra, Larix decidua, and Abies grandis were also planted.

There are two species of reptiles, Anguis fragilis and Natrix natrix and two amphibian species, Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria. The rock city creates favorable conditions for bird nesting. 73 species have been found here and 62 species are still nesting here. [2] Among the most abundant are Falcon tinnunculus, Strix aluco, Fringilla coelebs, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, (Garlicus glandarius), Carduelis carduelis, Pica pica, Passer montanus, Picus viridis, Carduelis chloris. Protected birds include Hirundo rustica, Apus apus, Bubo bubo, Corvus corax, Corvus monedula and Ficedula parva.

There were found 14 species of mammals - Meles meles, Talpa europaea, Martes martes, Martes foina, Vulpes vulpes, Ovis musimon, Apodemus flavicollis, Cleartoni glareolus, Sus scrofa, Sorex araneus, Capreolus capreolus, Squirrel vulgaris, Lepus europaeus, Rhinolophus hipposideros), which is critically endangered here. Its population includes 150-300 individuals. The most common invertebrates in this area are the Meta menardi, Cicindela campestris, Ammophila sabulosa, Myrmeleon formicarius, Spondylis buprestoides, Acanthocinus aedilis, . There is also a rare butterfly (Callimofpha dominula).

The reason for the protection is the most important rock town in the Bohemian Paradise with relics. There are also several protected plants and animals. For example, the plant is a perennial hairpin (Trichomanes speciosum) and a critically endangered Rhinolophus hipposideros. The territory of the nature reserve is part of the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area, which belongs to the Administration of the Protected Landscape Area of ​​Bohemian Paradise. The protection of the territory is embedded in the Plan of Care for PR Hruboskalsko. The biggest problems of protection include pulling the vegetation cover from the rocks, crashing the terrain off the road and grinding the rocks with climbing ropes.

The Hruboskalsko Nature Reserve is a very visited area. In addition to climbing, hiking and cycling are common. Visitors can not only enjoy the spectacular views of the imposing rocks, but also the unique nature. There are many marked tours for tourists and cyclists. Among the most interesting places of interest are the Marian Lookout near Hrubá skála, where one of the most beautiful views of the Bohemian Paradise on Dragon Rocks and Trosky is. Under the Hrubá skála castle there is a deep ravine with a sixty-five meter long rock passage called the Mouse Hole. Among the interesting natural monuments are the Arboretum of Bukovina and the rock form of Čertova ruka. Here is the archaeological site and remnants of a medieval castle. The important cultural monuments of Hruboskalska include Valdštein Castle, Hrubá skála Chateau, monument of folk architecture Kopitce's Farm and Sedmihorka Spa. For a multi-day visit to the area, it is possible to use different possibilities of accommodation, in the local guesthouses or in the pleasant Camp Sedmihorky.

Hruboskalské rock town belongs to the most original climbing areas. There was the first independent Czech first entry in 1928 on the Anebo tower, which was carried out by Karel Čabelka with the co-workers Bausys and Náhlovský. Climbing on the sandstone was then considered good preparation for the mountain. During the war, Joska Smítko was hiding in Hruboskalsko, which significantly shifted Czech sandstone climbing and became a model for many other climbers. After the war Hruboskalsko became the center of Czech sandstone climbing. The interest in climbing in Bohemia decreased significantly after the year of 1989, when the possibilities of traveling abroad opened, but today it is rising again. Part of the Hruboskalský Rock City is a symbolic cemetery, which was originally built with the idea of ​​creating a memorial for climbers who died in concentration camps during the Second World War. Eventually it became a monument to other mountaineers who perished in the mountains.

Debris (514 m above the 488 height) is a neo-vulcanic hill with ruins of a castle called also Debris in the Bohemian Paradise, approximately between Turnov and Jičín, in the cadastral area of ​​the village of Troskovice in the district of Semily Liberec region. Debris is a symbol of Bohemian Paradise and one of the most visited castles in the Czech Republic. In the upper parts of the hill lies the protected area of ​​the natural monument Trosky. The peak is the highest point of the Vyskeřská Highlands.

Debris is the erosion relic of a slag cone. Selective erosion carried the predominant part of the pyroclastic and exposed the double feed-in path of the former monogenetic volcanoes formed by the compact basandite (basalt type). In the space between the two towers there is still a basandite sub-horizontally placed slab with a subvertally oriented column separation. This piece probably represents the relic of the lava stream poured out of Baby. Compact inlets are lined with relics of pyroclastic seats. The layering is not developed, but it is clear from the texture of deposits that the slag was deposited on the surface in the form of a slag cone. The degree of fragmentation and frequency of vesicular fragments correspond to the strombolic type of eruption. Bazanit z Trosek was dated to 16,5 for millions of years. The activity began with the creation of the Baba slag cone, which was accompanied by a lava discharge. Subsequently, the center of activity moved sharply to the east, creating a sister cone of the Virgin. The Virgin's Pathway penetrates the reliving of the lava flow associated with the Baby Cone and the Virgin's slag overlaps this lava. The activity then shifted even further to the east, where 20 was, according to the witnesses, until the 1940s. centuries-old distinct basandite rock that was extracted. The two rock towers formed on the elaborate soupouch fillers were modeled in addition to anthropogenic activity by periglacial frost weathering: frost logs, cracks in the columnar separating rock. On the sloping marlin slopes a soliflucation rubble was formed. There is an extensive sandstone pedestal with rock formations on steep slopes (rock town - Apolena Nature Reserve in the south-southeast). The peak is predominantly wooded with pine trees, some of which are spruce and beech stands.

Prachov Rocks are rock formations of sandstone formations of various shapes, extending roughly 5 to 7 km northwest of the town Jičín, nature reserve, part of the Bohemian Paradise Protected Landscape Area and popular destination of tourists. They originated in the Secondary period as sediment at the edge of the sea.

There are archaeological findings proving that people lived here in the prehistoric times of the Stone Age. The whole area of ​​the rocks was a natural fortress of Slavic tribes, only a few places filled with valleys. Inside, the first settlement was built.

Probably by the end of 13. The Velis Castle was built on one of the basalt peaks with the adjoining Veliš manor. Several decades later, the estate was put into the possession of Vartemberks, and various settlements were created at the end of 15. the Trčková of Lípa is mentioned here as the owners. At the beginning of 17. century property was taken over by Smiřičtí from Smiřice, but in 1625 the estate was taken over by the Wallenstein family and annexed to its Frýdlant duchy. After the ruins of the manor were dismantled, settlements in the rocks disappeared.

The new stage begins in 1637, when Colonel Jindřich Šlik won the estate from the Earl of the Šliky Count with the estates in western Bohemia, which was promoted to the man-made state by the Emperor Zikmund. Rod Šliky owned the local estate until nationalization in 1948.

1866 was one of the Prussian-Austrian battles near the rocks, which the Prussians, though less numerous, won.

Since the end of 19. century, the rocks became the target of both climbers and tourists. In 1933, they became a state nature reserve.

In the restitution lawsuit, the Šliky family acquired 1993's area back and started to operate tourism-related services here. Public attendance is estimated at 300 000 people per year.

The first documenting of the whole complex of rocks occurred already in 1874. The professor of Jičín grammar school Antonín Zefyrin Maloch created a detailed plan using the compass and stepping method. The result of his work was to be a detailed map that was never completed. The first routes and significant rock formations were marked by 1879 Maloch's students, who, according to his plan, mapped the map of Prachov Rocks.
Rocks were popularized by Ivan Mladek's song by the same name.
Now there are three sightseeing tours for tourists. The tourist season is here from 1. April to the end of October. Access to the rocks is subject to a fee. Mountaineers have the option to buy a ticket at a discounted price, and they can move outside the designated routes, but they must be members of the CHS or UIAA. In the rocks there are many modified, differently named prospects. In the middle of the rocky area there is a natural swimming pool called Pelíšek.
Castle Pařez - rock castle.

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