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Giant Mountains (German Riesengebirge, Polish Karkonosze) are the geomorphological total and the highest mountain range in the Czech and the Highlands. It lies in northeastern Bohemia (the western part lies in the Liberec region, the eastern part of Královéhradecký) and in the south of the Polish part of Silesia. The highest mountain in the Giant Mountains is Sněžka (1603 m). According to rumors, the Krkonoše Mountains guard the mythical Krakonos spirit. It is one of the most popular mountain areas in the Czech Republic.

The wider mountain range, including today's Krkonoše, was described in antiquity as Sudetenland, which is probably Celtic origin (most commonly translated as the Bohemian Mountains) or Balkan origin (translated as Kozí hory). Klaudios Ptolemaios (for example, 85-165) used Sudetayle (from the Ore Mountains) and Askiburgion (especially the Jeseníky Mountains, the surroundings of the vandal town of Askiburgium, perhaps up to the Lusatian Mountains, including the Giant Mountains) for today's Sudetenland. Dio Cassius in 3. century used the name Vandalski Mountains for Askiburgion. After Ptolemy's maps arrived in Bohemia, Bohuslav Balbín and Pavel Skála of Zhoř used the extension of the name Sudety to the whole belt (17 century).

The Krkonoše Mountains themselves are called the Bohemian Forest in Russian Letters of 1095, and the name of Snow Mountain is called "Přibík Pulkava" in 1380.

The name of the Giant Mountains was originally marked by today's High Bike and also by Kotel or Kokrháč. The name of the Giant Mountains (in the singular of the female genus, the "Krkonoš") for the mountain ridge appears in the 1492 in the record of the division of the sparse manor in Valdštejn and Jilemnice, in 1499 in Vladislav II, the oldest map with this name Nicholas Klaudyan in 1518. Václav Hájek of Libočan in his chronicle of the year 1541 used the name Czech and Silesian Krkonoše.

The first proof of the extension of the name to the whole mountain is from the year 1517, when the name of the Krkonoše Mountains was used, the Krkonoše inscription complemented the picture of the devil. The abbreviated name of the Giant Mountains is first documented in 1601. The name is most often considered to be derived from the old Slavic base "neck" or "krak" meaning kleč or kosodřevinu, Josef Jungmann is associated with the name of the Germanic or Celtic tribe Corconti or Korkontoi, mentioned by Ptolemy, assuming that the Asciburgus mountain range today's Giant Mountains (Korkontoi should live somewhere near the sources of the Vistula, or rather in the Beskydy Mountains). Some investigations explain the origin of the Praslovian name with the meaning of "stony hillside, stony field" and assume a connection with the name of the Ukrainian mountain range Gorgan in the Eastern Carpathians.

The German equivalent (the Bohemian and Silesian sides of the mountains were inhabited by the overwhelming majority of Germans until 1945) with the meaning of the Giant Mountains (Riesengebirge, in the English Giant Mountains) originates from the name Risenberg, by which Agricola (Georgius?) In 1546 designated Snezka. The full Riesengebirge number for the entire mountain is first recorded in 1571.

The basis of geological composition consists of pre-peak crystalline slate and prehistoric metamorphic rocks (clamp). In the eastern part of the mountain range, limestones are rare. The ancient crystallinikum penetrates in some places and Krkonoše-Jizerský pluton (granite). The glaciers of the quaters were still glaciers that modeled the countryside. There were two types of glaciers. The first were valley-type glaciers and the second were Scandinavian type. Extensive plateau (Devil's hill, etc.) owes its glaciers to its origin. For a better idea, we can look at the icebergs in Scandinavia that illustrate how it is in Giant Mountains could look. The best example of glacial activity is, for example, the Elbe Mine or Giant Mine, which is a valley shaped by glaciers (troges). Other glacial relics are glacial kars (v Giant Mountains it is known for karyas as "pits"). Worth mentioning is the boiler pits and snow pits in Poland. Kary is one of the most precious things we can do Giant Mountains because they are the most rare of the Giant Mountains. Cryogenic activity v Giant Mountains it is necessary to mention, for example, the extensive rock sea (high hills) or frozen log cabins.

On the territory of the Giant Mountains there are relic and endemic species of plants and animals. IN Giant Mountains are the largest areas above the forest's upper limit in the Czech Republic. At the height of 1200-1300 m the forest belt ends here. Above is the area of ​​the earthquake, the soldier, the stone and the scrub sea. This very rare biotope is called the arc-alpine tundra. In some places we even find peat bogs. The original spruce was partly devastated by the impact of the immissions. In the lower positions, beech and spruce monocultures grow. The Malacofauna of the Giant Mountains contains 90 species of molluscs.

The Krkonoše National Park (KRNAP) is an area of ​​36 400 ha, which was announced in the year of 1963, and Karkonoski Park Narodowy (KPN) founded in 1959. The protection zone of the national park has a size of 18 400 ha on the Czech side. The Krkonose Mountains are also known since the 1992 Bilateral Biosphere Reserve, announced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (the area of ​​the Czech part is 54 800 ha). The KRNAP is divided into I., II. and III. protection zones, where the 1st zone is the most valuable and the most strict protection regime falls on it. This means, for example, measures where in I. and II. zone is prohibited to move outside marked tourist and skiing routes. The area of ​​the Krkonoše Mountains is also known as a bird area and significant bird area covering the whole area of ​​the biosphere reserve, respectively. national park including the protection zone.

The Giant Mountains are from the climatic point of view the most rugged mountain range in the Czech Republic. The summits lying above the 1400 m border can be compared to the Green Coast. Temperature varies primarily with altitude. For example, the average temperature in Trutnov is 6,8 degrees Celsius, while in Sněžka, which is the coldest place of Krkonoše, the average annual temperature is 0,2 degrees Celsius. At the same time, it is the coldest place in the Czech Republic. The amount of precipitation in the Giant Mountains depends on the altitude and slope orientation. The fact is that stations in the Western Giant Mountains have more rainfall than the stations in the eastern Giant Mountains during the year because the Western air flow prevails in the Czech Republic. Most rainfall falls in the summer months during the storms and the least rainfall is in March, but due to the large amount of snow it is less noticeable. Although the Giant Mountains are the highest mountain range in the Czech Republic, it does not seem to be the most precipitous because the Krkonoše Mountains are situated in the rainfall of the Jizera Mountains. On the ridges, the amount of rainfall is about 1300 mm / year, whereas in the valley it can be up to 1500 mm / year. Another part of the precipitation is naturally snow, which is an integral part of the Giant Mountains. On average, the date of the first snowfall in the Krkonoše Mountains can not be said because it can snow on the ridges almost all year round. The standing snow cover is on the ridges on average from mid-November to May. The largest snow accumulation occurs on sloping slopes (Map of the country where the snow reaches up to 15 meters!). Often in the Giant Mountains a strong wind blows (the highest wind speed measured at Sněžka 216 km / h).


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